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VMware / vCenter: Terms, Acronyms, Glossary {Tag your IT}

Recently I have taken, failed later taken and passed my VMware 2V0–620 – vSphere 6 Foundations Exam and passed. I am now in the process of practicing and studying for proctored exam(s) for the VMware Certified Professional 6 – Data Center Virtualization Certificate.

With that there are many terms, acronyms, and Glossary items I will need to remember.
I am adding a list of terms and will expand on them as I come across new ones.

 

VM: Virtual Machine – a software computer that, like a physical computer, runs an operating system and applications. https://pubs.vmware.com/vsphere-50/topic/com.vmware.vsphere.vm_admin.doc_50/GUID-CEFF6D89-8C19-4143-8C26-4B6D6734D2CB.html

ESXi: The vSphere Hypervisor from VMware (formerly ESX) is an enterprise-class, type-1 hypervisor.

VMFS: Virtual Machine File System for ESXi hosts, a clustered file system for running VMs

DCUI: Direct Console User Interface

iSCSI: Ethernet-based shared storage protocol.

SAS: Drive type for local disks (also SATA).

FCoE: Fibre Channel over Ethernet, a networking and storage technology.

HBA: Host Bus Adapter for Fibre Channel storage networks.

LUN: Logical unit number, identifies shared storage (Fibre Channel/iSCSI).

IOPs: Input/Outputs per second, detailed measurement of a drive’s performance.

pRDM: Physical mode raw device mapping, presents a LUN directly to a VM.

vRDM: Virtual mode raw device mapping, encapsulates a path to a LUN specifically for one VM in a VMDK.

SAN: Storage area network, a shared storage technique for block protocols (Fibre Channel/iSCSI).

NAS: Network attached storage, a shared storage technique for file protocols (NFS).

NFS: Network file system, a file-based storage protocol.

DAS: Direct attached storage, disk devices in a host directly.

VAAI: vStorage APIs for Array Integration, the ability to offload I/O commands to the disk array.

SSD: Solid state disk, a non-rotational drive that is faster than rotating drives.

VM Snapshot: A point-in-time representation of a VM.

ALUA: Asymmetrical logical unit access, a storage array feature. Duncan Epping explains it well.

VMX: VM configuration file.

VMEM: The page file of the guest VM.

NVRAM: A VM file storing the state of the VM BIOS.

VMDK: The virtual machine disk format, containing the operating system of the VM. VMware’s virtual disk format.

VMSN: Snapshot state file of the running VM.

VMSD: VM file for storing information and metadata about snapshots.

VMSS: VM file for storing suspended state.

VMTM: VM file containing team data.

VMXF: Supplemental configuration file for when VMs are used in a team.

Quiesce: The act of quieting (pausing running processes) a VM, usually through VMware Tools.

NUMA: Non-uniform memory access, when multiple processors are involved their memory access is relative to their location.

Virtual NUMA: Virtualizes NUMA with VMware hardware version 8 VMs.

VSAN: Virtual SAN, a new VMware announcement for making DAS deliver SAN features in a virtualized manner.

vSwitch: A virtual switch, places VMs on a physical network.

vDS: vNetwork Distributed Switch, an enhanced version of the virtual switch.

ISO: Image file, taken from ISO 9660file system for optical drives.

vSphere Client: Administrative interface of vCenter Server.

vSphere Web Client: Web-based administrative interface of vCenter Server.

Host Profiles: Feature to deploy a pre-determined configuration to an ESXi host.

Auto Deploy: Technique to automatically install ESXi to a host.

VUM: vSphere Update Manager, a way to update hosts and VMs with latest patches, VMware Tools and product updates.

vCLI: vSphere Command Line Interface, allows tasks to be run against hosts and vCenter Server.

vSphere HA: High Availability, will restart a VM on another host if it fails.

vCenter Server Heartbeat: Will keep the vCenter Server available in the event a host fails which is running vCenter.

Virtual Appliance: A pre-packed VM with an application on it.

vCenter Server: Server application that runs vSphere.

vCSA: Virtual appliance edition of vCenter Server.

vCloud Director: Application to pool vCenter environments and enable self-deployment of VMs.

vCloud Automation Center: IT service delivery through policy and portals, get familiar with vCAC.

VADP: vSphere APIs for Data Protection, a way to leverage the infrastructure for backups.

MOB: Managed Object Reference, a technique vCenter uses to classify every item.

DNS: Domain Name Service, a name resolution protocol. Not related to VMware, but it is imperative you set DNS up correctly to virtualize with vSphere.

vSphere: Collection of VMs, ESXi hosts, and vCenter Server.

vCenter Linked Mode: A way of pooling vCenter Servers, typically across geographies.

vMotion: A VM migration technique.

Storage vMotion: A VM storage migration technique from one datastore to another.

vSphere DRS: Distributed Resource Scheduler, service that manages performance of VMs.

vSphere SDRS: Storage DRS, manages free space and datastore latency for VMs in pools.

Storage DRS Cluster: A collection SDRS objects (volumes, VMs, configuration).

Shares: Numerical value representing the relative priority of a VM.

Datastore: A disk resource where VMs can run.

vSphere Fault Tolerance: An availability technique to run the networking, memory and CPU of a VM on two hosts to accommodate one host failure.

DPM: Distributed Power Management, a way to shut down ESXi hosts when they are not being used and turn them back on when needed.

vShield Zones: A firewall for vSphere VMs.

vCenter Orchestrator: An automation technique for vCloud environments.

OVF: Standards based format for delivering virtual appliances.

OVA: Packaging of OVF, usually as a URL to download the actual OVF from a source Internet site. Read more here.

VMware Tools: A set of drivers for VMs to work correctly on synthetic hardware devices. Read more on VMware Tools.

vSphere Licensing: Different features are available as the licensing level increases, from free ESXi to Enterprise Plus.

vCloud Suite: The collection of technologies to deliver the VMware Software Defined Data Center.

VMware Compatibility Matrix: List of supported storage, servers, and more for VMware technologies. Bookmark this page!

vSphere role: A permissions construct assigned to users or groups.

Configuration Maximums: Guidelines of how big a VM can be; see the newest for vSphere 5.5.

Transparent page sharing: A memory management technique; eliminates duplicate blocks in host memory.

Memory compression: A memory management technique; applies a compressor to active memory blocks on the host.

Balloon driver: A memory management technique; reclaims guest VM memory via VMware Tools.

Hypervisor swap: A memory management technique; puts guest VM memory to disk on the host.

Hot-add: A feature to add a device to a VM while it is running, such as a VMDK.

Dynamic grow: A feature to increase the size of VMDK while the VM is running.

CPU Ready: The percentage of time that the VM is ready to get a CPU cycle (higher number is bad).

Nested hypervisor: The ability to run ESXi as a VM either on ESXi, VMware Workstation, or VMware Fusion.

Virtual hardware version: A revision of a VM that aligns to its compatibility. vSphere 5.5 is hardware version 10, for example.

Maintenance mode: An administration technique where a host evacuates it’s running and powered off VMs safely before changes are made.

vApp: An organizational construct combining one or more VMs.

Cluster: A collection of hosts in a vSphere data center.

Resource pool: A performance management technique, has DRS rules applied to it and contains one or more VMs, vApps, etc.

vSphere folder: An organizational construct, a great way to administer permissions and roles on VMs.

Datacenter: Parent object of the vSphere Cluster.

vCloud Networking and Security: Part of the vCloud Suite; provides basic networking and security functionality.

vCenter Site Recovery Manager: An automated solution to prepare for a site failover event for the entire vSphere environment.

NSX: New technology virtualizing the network layer for VMware environments. Read more here.

VDI: Virtual desktop infrastructure, also called DaaS (Desktop as a Service) from Horizon View; run as ESXi VMs and with vSphere.

VXLAN: VMs with a logical network across different networks.

vCenter Configuration Manager: Part of vCloud Suite that automates configuration and compliance for multiple platforms.

vCenter Single Sign on: Authentication construct between components of the vCloud Suite.

VM-VM affinity: Sets rules so two VMs should run on the same ESXi host or stay separated.

Storage I/O Control: I/O prioritization for VMs.

NIOC: vSphere Network I/O Control – Enabled by default network I/O control is enabled, distributed switch traffic is divided into the following predefined network resource pools: Fault Tolerance traffic, iSCSI traffic, vMotion traffic, management traffic, vSphere Replication (VR) traffic, NFS traffic, and virtual machine traffic.

 

 

 

Maintaining Professionalism At Work

Summary: Few qualities are as key as professionalism. The consummate business professional combines the right attitude, competence, and awareness of image and etiquette. Moreover, professionalism does not stop when you leave the office. Professionals lead by example whether they are at a meeting or a business social event. Upholding business professionalism is fundamental to making others feel comfortable doing business with you.

 

Tips To Maintaining Business Professionalism:

1. Portray A Professional Image – The majority of companies in the U.S. enforce a mandatory dress code; therefore, it is your responsibility to adhere to these requirements, even if it is not discussed during orientation. Although dress codes will vary from organization to organization, most corporate dress codes prohibit shorts or excessively tight clothing.

Always be aware of what is appropriate for the industry and situation. For example, a construction supervisor might meet with a client while wearing jeans and a flannel shirt; however, an entry-level office worker who wears the same clothing would not be considered appropriate. To get an idea of what is acceptable, observe the leaders at your company and follow their example.

2. Embody Professional Qualities ¬- Much like a dress code, standards of business professionalism can vary by industry and company. Nevertheless, the core values of professionalism exist in every industry. Companies are always in search of employees that embody the following qualities: integrity, credibility, pride, promptness, accountability, and competence. Additionally, lauded professionals are excellent communicators who are eager to learn and elevate the work of others.

3. Remember: You Are Always “On” ¬- Never forget that when
you interact with others in and out of the office, you are always on “camera”. Your reactions to challenges, pressure, and stressful situations are always being judged. Regardless of the setting, always consider the consequences of your actions. Remain aware of your behavior even in casual venues, such as holiday parties (especially those involving alcohol) and networking events.

4. The Three Aspects of Professionalism – Numerous variables come together to define “professionalism.” We have distilled the many facets of professionalism into three key areas that you and your team should always reflect on.

Interpersonal Skills – Your interaction with contacts, coworkers, clients, vendors, supervisors, and subordinates sets the tone. Treating these people with respect and consideration is crucial.
Attitude – Always maintain a positive and forward-thinking attitude. Be friendly to others and avoid getting too low when things don’t work out how you expected. Remember, your body language reveals a lot and should radiate confidence and openness, without hostility or aggression.
Leadership – A strong leader is one that unites a team and creates synergy between staff. Leaders that instill value, quality and integrity in their employees are responsible for setting the bar on what is considered professional. Additionally, you want to help your team bring solutions to the table; not complaints. Take the initiative by being a leader.

*Credit* – Dale Carnegie

Rest in Eternal Peace, Dad – Robert Michael Troiano, 73

Eternal rest, grant unto him O Lord and let perpetual light shine upon him.

Robert Michael Troiano, 73, of Jersey City, Middletown New Jersey and in this final years in life Danville Virginia, died Thursday, March 9, 2017.

A Retired United States Air Force Veteran and Newark, New Jersey High School Teacher.
Robert leaves his loving wife and best friend Pamela, four children (Robyn, Michael, Jermal, Cornell), 10 grandchildren, 2 great grandchildren.

Final Resting Place – Virginia Veterans Cemetery at Amelia
10300 Pridesville Road
Amelia, VA 23002

I shall forever be grateful for the opportunities in life you allowed for me to have. It is truly evident that without you, I may have not become the man I am today. For this I will forever be in your gratitude. Although I was not of your blood, you accepted me as your son. I humbly thank you.

Your work ethic and passions for learning has been a driving force in my life always. You taught me how men should be men and step up and in when called upon. Most importantly how to love through actions and not just words.

I’m not one for goodbyes – Its why you often if not always hear me say see / talk to you later.
I truly believe that one day GOD will bring us back to one another in time.

Today I see my ‘step-father’ and the man whom has been my father/dad for the majority of my life on this earth. I have leaned many things, both positive and negative from this man which has made me a strong willed man over the years.

I never truly had the chance to thank him for all he’s done, but I know in my heart, he knows. Bob (Robert) / Dad, I love you and will forever miss you. Rest in peace, the pain you once felt is no more, and you are on your way to the kingdom we all shall enter at some point. – Love, Your Son – Jermal

You will be remembered always.

Sleep well dad until we once again are re-untied

 

 

Going Vegan for 30 Days – Part 1

 

Hey friends,

Here I am, making my very own attempt choice to try do new things while learn something about myself and others via what we all love… Food! This is not some new short lived diet that I am attempting. Its a peek into a lifestyle that many others, and a few friends live.

Today it technical the 2nd day for me… Not bad as I have been preparing myself for over a year now. This is now my commitment for the next 30 days.

With that I will leave myself the following note.

Jermal: Things you can’t eat –

  • Butter or cream
  • Eggs
  • Cheese from cows or goats
  • Milk from cows or goats
  • Meat, poultry, lamb, or beef
  • Fish, shellfish, shrimp, or lobster
  • Gelatin
  • Honey (this one is going to be hard; I love honey in my tea)
  • Anything that poops

Jermal: Things you can and should eat –

  • All fruits
  • All vegetables
  • All herbs and spices
  • Beans
  • Soy-based protein like tofu and tempeh
  • Grains
  • Pasta (that’s not made from eggs)
  • Olive oil

Admittedly I will need help from some of you in the community, so please comment and help me with some tips / advice. I have already singed up for PETA’s vegan starter kit! Time to pull in the other resources I’ve booked marked over the year

More to come.

7 Tips To Help Stop Procrastination – Dale Carnegie

To help you avoid this from happening to you or someone you know, we have compiled our favorite list of tips to help stop procrastination. Here are some tips one could follow.

1. Organize Your Thoughts – Start with a quick brainstorming session to get your thoughts in order. Create a clear and focused directive to work toward. Once you know where you need to go, you can take the first step to getting there (we recommend creating a written plan of steps for your “to-do” list of events).

2. Establish A Day/Time Deadline – Keep yourself honest by attaching a deadline to all of your actionable tasks. The wishy-washy “someday” deadline is not effectual. Reviewing your timetable regularly with others is a great way to bounce ideas around that can improve your workflow.

3. Break Your Work Into Smaller Chunks Or Steps – Often times, we procrastinate because the work is intimidating. A large, dynamic project can be overwhelming, and it can be difficult to know where to begin. Break your project into smaller parts, and then focus on one part at a time. Reducing a large project into smaller pieces can simplify an otherwise unwieldy task.

4. Think Positively About The End Result – An approaching deadline can cause a sense of panic, but keep calm instead of giving in to anxiety. If you were assigned a project, it means that someone knew you could handle it. You can put yourself in a positive state of mind by thinking about other projects you accomplished and the steps you took to get things done.

5. Reward Yourself – Treat yourself to a coffee break or walk once you have a few pieces of your project completed. You can use this to motivate your work efforts, and it keeps you fresh by breaking up the monotony of the grind.

6. Make It Happen – At the end of the day, it comes down to taking action. Remember, no amount of planning and strategizing matters if you don’t put pen to paper.

7. Ask For Help – That’s right, asking for help is one of the best ways to jump-start the process. Although you might be able to get your staff to help you, don’t let finances get in the way to helping you hire a consultant for this one project. It’s amazing what will happen when you say these five simple words, “Would you mind helping me?”

Executive Summary: Everyone falls into the trap of procrastinating from time to time. However, when it is crunch time, and you need to get to work, put an end to procrastination by employing the tips we outlined above. To help you get things done ASAP, organize your thoughts and create a focused plan. After that, break your project into smaller pieces to make it less intimidating. More importantly, set deadlines for each task and reward yourself as you progress through your project. Finally, just step up and take action. If taking action seems insurmountable, pick up your phone and ask for help!

QOTD: Lewis Carroll

“If I had a world of my own, everything would be nonsense. Nothing would be what it is, because everything would be what it isn’t.” – Lewis Carroll -Alice in Wonderland (1951)

Virtualize Everything

The PolygraphTest

10 Tips To Help You Become A Better Leader

– Because Sharing is Caring –

When a business hits some turbulence, an executive’s instinct is sometimes to focus on greater efficiency and productivity by tightening control. But the truth is that giving up authority and giving employees independence can improve innovation and success, even during crises. With that in mind, we have put together a number of tips to help you or someone you know become a better leader in the coming months.

10 Tips To Help You Maximize Your Leadership Skills:

 

  1.  Build Better Relationships – Great leaders know the value of relationships.  They know who people are, what is important to them, and what motivates them.  Knowing this will help you understand their goals and how you can support them.  When you help people, they will care about you and your goals in return.

 

  1.  Get To Know People On A Personal Level – If you take the time to get to know people you like, they will no doubt come to like you, too.  Furthermore, it is always nice to ask people about their families and interests.  You will also find that, if people like you, they will be more open to helping you and taking the extra time to get things done.

 

  1.  Develop A Mentoring Program – Great leaders know that mentoring someone will not only help develop that person’s career, but also help leaders refine their skills.

 

  1.  Be Upbeat And Stay Positive – In the business world, it is easy to criticize what everyone does and to be negative, especially in this economy.  As a leader, you need to find ways to stay positive and find ways to do things better, faster and more effectively.  It is important to remember that people are not perfect, and while you do need to address poor performance, great leaders know the value of acknowledging when people are doing things correctly.  Doing so builds a positive work environment that helps make people feel appreciated.

 

  1.  Know Your Strengths – We each have strengths and weaknesses.  That being said, you will find that it is better to spend time working on your strengths rather than your weaknesses.  By doing this, you will find that you can rise to the expert level sooner than you would be by working on your weaknesses.  Bottom line: Know what you are good at and keep at it.

 

  1.  Surround Yourself With People Who Complement You – As I mentioned above, we all have strengths and weaknesses.  Great leaders know what their weaknesses are and find people who support their shortcomings.  Not because they need to cover their weaknesses, but because they know the benefit of having a strong team — and when the team wins, everyone wins.

 

  1.  Look At Your Career, Not So Much At The Company – Great leaders know that they are the ones who will create their own career paths; therefore, they will work on making it happen.  And once they become an expert in their selected careers, they will find that they can go almost anywhere they want to go.

 

  1.  Respect Your People – If you do not like to be around people, let alone lead people, then do not take a leadership position.  Conversely, if you do want to be in a leadership position, start building relationships with people by respecting what they do.  Additionally, it is important that a great leader never misses an opportunity to learn more about the people behind them.  Great leaders never skip an employee’s birthday gathering or a holiday party because they are too busy — they know that work will always be there.

 

  1.  Balance Your Work And Personal Life – Great leaders are often times driven people, but they know the key to success is to balance work and family.  Life is too short for you to live at your job.  One day, when work is winding down, you will think to yourself I wished I had done things differently.  Unfortunately, it will be too late to do so.  Great leaders set career boundaries and know when to spend more time with family and friends. Doing this will make stronger leaders.

 

  1.  Evolve Into Someone You Aspire To Become – Great leaders know that they are individuals and that, as an individual, they are not required to be like everyone else.  They also know that they can take the path less traveled, as the risk is sometimes greater than the reward.  To be a great leader, one must become a person of great interest who has great skills.

 

Executive Summary: When it comes time to lead people, great leaders know the power of information, information they gather from listening to people they respect.  They also know what to say, how to say it and when to say it so that during tough times things get done.

VMware vSphere 6.5 Nested Virtualization – Create and Install ESXi 6.5

With vSphere 6.5 and nested ESXi 6.5 hosts I enable myself to get hands on with vSphere advanced features with vCenter without having the physical hardware in my home lab. The advantages to this setup allows me to test out new VMware features or simulate issue that could happen in production.

The term “nested virtualization” is used to describe a hypervisor running under another hypervisor. In this case, I will be installing ESXi 6.5 inside a virtual machine hosted on a physical ESXi 6.5 host.

Requirements:

  • Physical ESXi Host (ESXi 6 – 6.5 – )
  • Physical hardware supporting either Intel EPT or AMD RVI

Steps to setup ESXi 6.5 virtual machine guest:

Log into vCenter or ESXi host with a user with admin credentials. In my case I am using the vSphere web client. *spoiler alert* no more C# (Thick) client for vCenter. However it still works with the ESXi 6.5 hosts.

Switch to the “VMs and Templates” view. Right click a folder and select New Virtual Machine > New Virtual Machine…

Choosing “Custom” configuration select type Other for OS family, doing the same for Guest OS version. *note* Ensure you are choosing 64-bit (Other 64-bit)

Once at the configuration hardware screen; Make a few modifications to the default values.

VM Guest Configuration Settings:

  • Define the CPU to a minimum of 2 or more. This includes cores.
  • Define memory to a minimum of 6GB RAM
  • Define Disk to 2 GB (Thin Disk)
  • Change network adapter type to VMXNET 3
  • Add an addition network adapter (also VMXNET 3)

Additional Configuration Step: Enabling support for 64-bit nested vms

Locate the and expand the CPU properties page and tick the check box next to “Expose hardware assisted virtualization to the guest OS”. This setting will allow you to 64-bit vms inside nested ESXi hosts. Read more about this feature here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hardware-assisted_virtualization

Click next and exit configuration

At this point you are ready to install ESXi 6 – 6.5 as a Guest VM.

I leave you with this video of the full process. Thanks for visiting and I hope this helps any of you looking to do the same.

 

Originally posted on my LinkedIn Page:

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/vmware-vsphere-65-nested-virtualization-create-install-jermal-smith

Installing vCenter Appliance 6.5

With the general availability (GA) release of vSphere 6.5 I decided to upgrade my home lab and learning environment to the latest and greatest of VMware’s product. Not only for learning, but for running the systems I use daily in my lab.

Preparation work:

  • Download and Install ESXi 6.5 to my new lab hardware – Configure ESXi 6.5
  • Download the VCSA 6.5 Installation media and start the install process – See below

I mounted the installation media (ISO) on my Windows notebook and started the installation by navigating to \vcsa-ui-installer\win32\ and starting the installer.exe application.

This will display the Center Server Appliance 6.5 Installer. Seeing how this install will be a new installation of vCenter I selected “Install”

Here you find a two step installation process. The first step will deploy a vCenter Server 6,5 appliance and the second step will be configuring this deployed appliance.

Accept the standard End User License Agreement (EULA) to move forward into the installation.

Next you select the type of installation you need for your environment needs. In my case I have chosen the embedded Platform Services Controller deployment.

Next, choose the ESXi host where you would like to have this vCenter appliance deployed and provide the root credentials of the host for authentication.

Then, provide a name for the vCenter appliance VM that is going to be deployed and set the root password for the appliance.

Based upon your environment size, select the sizing of the vCenter appliance. I went with Tiny as it fits the needs of my Lab environment. Note: It will configure the Virtual Appliance with 10GB of ram so be sure you can support this in yours.

Next, select the datastore where the vCenter appliance files need to reside.

Configure the networking of vCenter appliance. Please have a valid IP which can be resolved both forward / reverse prior to this to prevent any failures during installation.

Review and finish the deployment, and the progress for stage 1 begins. Upon completion, Continue to proceed to configure the appliance. This is stage 2.

The stage 2 wizard begins at this point. The first section is to configure Network Time Protocol (NTP) setting for the appliance and enable Shell access for the same.

Next configure an SSO domain name, the SSO password and the Site name for the appliance. Once the configuration wizard is completed you can login to the web client.

The following short video I made gives you an feel for the install process. Enjoy.